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Leopard

Leopard

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Taiga?s True Views: The Language of Landscape Painting in Eighteenth-Century Japan by Melinda Takeuchi (1994-06-01)
Melinda Takeuchi
The History of England, Vol 2
David Hume
The History of Scepticism: From Savonarola to Bayle
Richard H. Popkin
Cicero: On Moral Ends (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy)
Marcus Tullius Cicero, Raphael Woolf, Julia Annas
Das Goldene Vlies: Dramatisches Gedicht in Drei Abteilungen
Franz Grillparzer
Euripides IV: Rhesus / The Suppliant Women / Orestes / Iphigenia in Aulis
Charles R. Walker, Frank William Jones, William Arrowsmith, David Grene, Euripides, Richmond Lattimore
Notes from Underground & The Double
Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Jesse Coulson
The World of Thought in Ancient China
Benjamin I. Schwartz
The Last Generation of the Roman Republic
Erich S. Gruen
The Legend of Gold and Other Stories
William J. Tyler, Jun Ishikawa, Ishikawa Jun
Opfer der Könige - Zbigniew Herbert Opfer der Könige consists of two of Herbert's essays - Verteidigung der Templer (Defense of the Templars) and Albigenser, Inquisitoren und Troubadoure (Albigensier, Inquisitors and Troubadors) - taken from his Barbarzynca w ogrodzie (A Barbarian in a Garden). So there are two "victims of the kings" here. The first essay is an address of an imaginary defense attorney for the Knights Templar before an imaginary court of inquisition. The Knights Templar were stamped out of existence by the infamous Jean le Beau, though he had the not entirely willing collaboration of the Pope he had arrested and placed on a leash in southern France. Perhaps Herbert was just trying to generate a little interest in some (very) general audience, but this rather superficial essay was a disappointment. Quite the opposite is the case of the second essay, which addresses in his normal voice the "Albigensian Crusade". Every time I read about this "crusade", I am reduced to despair! Herbert provides a concrete and moving summary of those horrible events, which led to the destruction of an entire culture and established the King of France (who ruled much of what is now the northern part of France) as master of what is now southern France and replaced the high culture of the langue d'oc with that of the north (langue d'oui). The notorious and shameful Inquisition began its centuries long rampage of torture and executions with the Catholic Church's attempt to root out the "heresy" of the Cathars after the large scale military engagements finally ended. Herbert quotes at length from the law which was to guide the elimination of the heresy - one's eyes bulge at the draconian measures taken! He also reports on a number of concrete incidents which illustrate how this law was carried out. Here at the latest one understands part of the reason why Herbert was so emotionally involved in the study and the telling of these events. (That there are more reasons for such involvement is quite evident.) These essays were written, just a few years after the Soviet tanks had crushed the Hungarian uprising, by a citizen of a country under the thumb of the Communist Party and subject to a network of spies, informers and enforcers of draconian laws not at all unlike what the Inquisition set up in the Languedoc. And I have no doubt that his Polish readers clearly understood the parallels.